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Home SKILLS Stunts Glossary of Cheerleading Stunting Terms
Glossary of Cheerleading Stunting Terms PDF Print E-mail


Aerial  ~ A gymnastics skill in which the stunt is performed free of contact with floor or another person.

Aerial Flip ~ aerial (free from contact) hip-over-head rotation.

Airborne ~ See aerial.

Airborne Tumbling Skill ~ An aerial flip in which a person uses their body and the performing surface to propel themselves away from the performing surface.

Assisted Flipping Mount ~ An entrance to a stunt or pyramid in which the flyer performs a hip-over head rotation while in direct contact with another participant when passing through the inverted position.

Assisted Landing ~ A controlled dismount, where the base(s) and/or back spot following a pop or a step down from a stunt, grab the flyer’s waist to control the flyer’s landing onto the cheering surface.

Assisted Tumbling ~ Any form of assistance to an individual performing a tumbling skill. This does not apply to gymnastics oriented “stunts” and transitions allowed at each level.

Awesome ~ Traditionally an extended co-ed partner stunt in which the feet of the flyer are in one hand of the base. The stunt is sometimes referred to as a cupie.

Back or Front Tuck ~ An aerial stunt involving head over heel rotation. During the head over heel rotation the body remains in a tuck (knees to chest) position.

Back spot (spotter) ~ a person who is in a correct position to prevent injury to the flyer. Their primary purpose is to protect the flyer’s head and shoulder. They also provide stability to the stunt. A spotter can not provide primary or weight bearing support.

Barrel Roll ~ A flyer is in a horizontal or cradle position, tossed upward and rotates 360 degrees parallel to the floor before being re-cradled by the original bases. Also referred to as a Log Roll.

Base ~ A person who is in direct contact with the floor and is providing primary weight bearing support for a flyer/and or top person.

Basket Toss ~ A toss which involves traditionally two bases, a back spot and possibly a front spot, in which the bases hands are interlocked.

Back Tuck Basket Toss ~ A basket toss in which the flyer does one head over heels rotation before being caught in a cradle position by the original bases and back spot.

Backward Dismount ~ When a flyer dismounts backwards, with or without their feet being held, to catchers who are not the original bases or to the performance surface from a stunt or pyramid.

Braced ~ touching, connecting, or supporting some weight of another person.

Braced Flip ~ A stunt in which the flyer performs a hip-over-head rotation while in constant physical contact with another flyer.

Catcher ~ One of the person’s responsible for the safe landing/dismounting of a flyer during a stunt or pyramid.

Chair ~ a stunt in which the flyer is in a sitting position on the hand of a base.

Co-ed Stunt ~ A stunt involving one male base and one female flyer

Connected Tumbling ~ Physical Contact between two or more individuals performing tumbling skills simultaneously.

Cradle ~ A release move in which the catchers, with palms up, catch the flyer in a pike position with the one hand under the back, the other under her upper thigh. A cradle can occur after a pop or sweep. Flyer must land in a face up position.

Cupie ~ An extended stunt in which the flyer is standing with both feet in the hands of the base(s). Each foot of the flyer is supported by different hand(s). Unlike an extension, in a cupie the flyer’s feet are kept next to each other (touching).

Dirty Bird ~ Toss to a laid out X-Position to the back of the base, through the base’s legs and they transition to another stunt. (Traditionally a scooper)

Dismount ~ The release of a flyer from a stunt onto the cheering surface or cradle. This is typically considered the end of a stunt or pyramid. The placement from the cradle to the performance service is not considered a dismount.

Dive Roll ~ A forward roll where your feet leave the ground before your hands reach the ground.

Downward inversion ~ where the flyer’s center of gravity is moving toward the performance surface from a stunt or pyramid.

Downward Motion ~ The movement of one’s center of gravity towards the performance surface.

Double down ~ Following a pop, the flyer, in a vertical position, performs two full rotations, before being caught by the base(s) and a back spot in a cradle.

Drop ~ Dropping to the knee, thigh, seat, front, back or split position onto the performance surface from an airborne position or inverted position without first bearing most of the weight on the hands/feet.

Entrance Skill ~ The beginning or mounting phase of a stunt or tumbling skill.

Extended Arm Level ~ The distance from the performing surface to the highest point of the base’s arm(s) when standing upright with the arm(s) fully extended over the head. Note: Extended arms do not necessarily define as “extended stunt”

Extended Position ~ A flyer supported by a base(s) with fully extended arms. Note: Extended arms do not necessarily define as “extended stunt”

Extended Stunt ~ A stunt in which the supporting arm(s) of the base(s) are fully extended above the base(s) head. and the flyer’s body is fully extended in an upright manner. Stunts that are not considered “extended stunts”: Chairs, flat backs, straddle lifts and arm-arms. These are stunts where the bases arms are fully extended overhead but are not considered extended since the height of the flyer is the same as if they were in a prep level stunt.

Extension ~ An extended stunt where the flyer is standing with both feet in the hands of the base(s). The flyers feet are kept shoulder width apart. Each foot of the flyer is supported by a different hand.

Extension Prep (Half) ~ When the flyer is being held at shoulder level by the base(s),

Flat Back ~ A stunt in which the flyer is lying horizontal and is usually supported by two or more bases. Also called a Dead man lift

Flipping Toss ~ A toss where the top person rotates through an inverted position.

Flyer ~ A person who is on the top of the stunt. Their weight/primary support is given by a base(s). Also referred to as a top person.

Free Flipping Mount ~ Immediately prior to a stunt, the entry into the stunt where the flyer passes through an inverted position without physical contact to a base, brace or the performance surface.

Front Spot ~ Required on all two and half high builds. Their primary purpose is to protect the flyer, to catch the flyer if she/he should fall forward during a stunt.

Full ~ A 360 degree twisting rotation.

Full-Up Toe Touch ~ A non-flipping skill (typically performed in a dismount or toss) in which one performs a 360 degrees turn before executing a toe touch.

Ground Level ~ To be at the height of or supported by the performing surface.

Half ~ See "Extension Prep".

Fly Over ~ A basket toss where the flyer leaves one set of bases (free of contact) and is caught by a separate set of bases.

Hand/Arm Connection ~ The physical contact between two or more individuals using the hand(s)/arm(s).

Hanging Pyramid ~ A pyramid in which one or more persons are suspended off the performing surface by one or more top persons. Hanging pyramids must remain upright.

Helicopter ~ A flyer is in a horizontal/flat back or possibly a prone position. The flyer is tossed upward and rotates 360 degrees parallel to the floor (similar to helicopter blades) before being cradled by the original bases.

Hitch ~ Connection of one extended stunt to a prep level stunt involving leg/foot to hand or leg/foot to body contact.

Inversion ~ See "Inverted"; it is the act of being inverted.

Inverted ~ When the top person’s shoulders are below her/his waist and at least one foot is above her/his waist. Arch-back dismounts to a cradle are not considered inverted.

Jump ~ An airborne position not involving hip-over-head rotation created by using one’s own feet and lower body power to push off the performance surface.

Kick Arch ~ Type of trick that involves the straight ride to a kick with one leg and an arch out of the trick into the cradle position.

Kick Double Full ~ Skill, typically in a toss, that involves a kick and a 720 degree twisting rotation. A quarter turn performed by the top person during the kick portion is customary and permitted to initiate the twists.

Kick Full ~ Skill, typically in a toss, that involves a kick and a 360 degree twisting rotation. A quarter turn performed by the top person during the kick portion is customary and permitted to initiate the twist.

Knee (Body) Drop ~ Dropping to the knees, seat, thigh or splits from an airborne position without first bearing the majority of the weight on the hands or feet.

Leap Frog ~ A braced top person is transitioned from one set of bases to another or back to the original bases by going through the arms of the brace. The top person remains upright and stays in continuous contact with the brace while transitioning. Second Level Leap Frog: Same as above but performed at any level above ground level.

Liberty ~ Stunt which may be done at the prep or extended level. The flyer stands on one leg, the other leg is bent, toe pointed at the knee. The majority of weight is held by one base (main base). The other base and spot help to stabilize the stunt.

Log Roll ~ A release move whereby the top person’s body rotates at least 360 degrees while remaining parallel to the performing surface. (Also known as “barrel roll”.)

Mount ~ See "Stunt”.

Multi-Based Stunt ~ A stunt having 2 or more bases not including the back spot.

New Base(s) ~ Bases previously not in direct contact with the top person of a stunts

Non-Inverted Position ~ The body is upright. The top person's shoulders are at or above the waist.

Original Base(s) ~ A base which is in contact with the top person during the initiation of the stunt.

Paper Dolls ~ Identical single-leg stunts bracing each other while in the single leg position. The stunts may or may not be extended.

Pike ~ Body bent forward at the hips while the legs are kept straight.

Pop ~ A controlled upward push by the base(s) followed by a release of the flyer’s feet. The flyer may dismount directly to the cheer floor (with an assisted landing) or may be cradled.

Prep ~ See "Extension Prep".

Prep-Level ~ The height of the bases hands and at least one foot of the top person are at shoulder-level (also known as shoulder-height). Chairs, torches, flatbacks, arm-n-arms and straddle lifts will be considered prep level stunts.

Primary Support ~ Supporting a majority of the weight of the top person.

Prone Position ~ A face down, flat body position.

Prop ~ An object that can be manipulated.

Punch ~ See "Rebound".

Pyramid ~ A grouping of multiple stunts that may or may not be connected to create a visual effect. Individuals standing at ground level may be incorporated into the grouping.

Rebound ~ A gymnastic term referring to an airborne position not involving hip-over-head rotation created by using one’s own feet and lower body power to bounce off the performance surface from a tumbling skill. Also known as "Punch."

Release Move ~ When the base(s) and top person become free of contact with each other and the top person comes back to the original set of bases. A single base toss to a stunt
from the ground is neither considered a release move nor a toss. This interpretation applies to "stunts" only, not "pyramids."

Reload ~ Returning to the loading position with both feet of the top person in the hands of the bases.

Retake ~ Reloading to a stunt, whereby the top person brings one foot to the ground prior to reloading.

Rewind ~ A free-flipping release move used as an entrance skill into a stunt

Scooper ~ An entrance/transition skill into a stunt in which a person (usually a top person)
passes between the legs and under the torso of another person (usually a base).

Scrunch Toss ~ See "Sponge Toss".

Second Level ~ Any person being supported away from the performing surface by one or more bases.

Show and Go ~ A transitional stunt where a stunt passes through an extended level and lands into a loading position or non-extended stunt.

Shoulder Stand Level ~ A stunt in which the top person’s hips are at the same height they would be if in a shoulder stand.

Shushunova ~ A straddle jump (toe touch) landing in a prone support (push up position)

Single-Based Double Awesome/Cupie ~ A single base supporting 2 top persons who have both feet in each hand of the base; see definition of "Awesome/Cupie"

Single-Based Split Catch ~ A single base extending a top person (who is in an upright position having knees forward) by holding both inner thighs as the top person typically performs a high "V" motion, creating an "X" with the body. This is an illegal stunt.

Single-Based Stunt ~ A stunt using a single base for support.

Single-Leg Stunt ~ See "Stunt".

Sponge Toss ~ A multi base stunt where the flyer is tossed upward, by his or her feet to increase the height before being cradled by the original bases.

Spotted Tumbling ~ See “Assisted Tumbling”.

Spotter ~ A person whose primary responsibility is the protection of another during the performance of a skill. Must be in direct contact with the performing surface. Must be attentive to the skill being spotted. Back Spotter is required for each extended stunt. (See definition of “Back Spot” above) Must be in the proper position to prevent injuries and does not have to be in direct contact with the stunt. Cannot stand so that their torso is under a stunt. Cannot have both hands directly supporting under the sole of the top person’s foot/feet. A spotter may grab the wrist(s) of the base(s), other parts of the base(s) arms, the top person’s legs (ankles) or does not have to touch the stunt at all. All “Spotters” must be your own team’s members and be trained in proper spotting techniques. Spotters may also be counted as a base in some cases (e.g. transitional stunts).

Squishy (Toss) ~ See "Sponge Toss".

Straight Cradle ~ A release move from a stunt to a catching position where no skill (i.e. turn, kick, twist, etc.) is performed.

Straight Ride ~ The body position of a top person performing a toss that doesn’t involve any trick in the air. It is a straight line position that teaches the top to reach and to obtain maximum height on toss.

Stunt ~ Any skill in which a top person is supported above the performance surface by one or more persons. Also referred to as a “mount.” A stunt is determined to be "Single" or "Double" leg by the number of legs that the top person has being primarily supported by a base(s).

Suspended Flip/Roll ~ A stunt involving head over heels rotation, either forward or backwards, while the flyer maintains continuous hand to hand or hand to arm contact with a person(s) who is in direct weight bearing contact with the performance surface.

Sweep ~ A controlled forward pushing (sweeping) motion by the bases to release the flyer from a stunt into a cradle catch.

Swedish Fall ~ The name is taken from a gymnastics skill. A Swedish Fall is a position that can be used in two high pyramids or two and a half high. The flyer is positioned face down, arms are fully extended, back arched, one leg is held straight, the other is straight and extended upward (continuing the arch position).

Table Top ~ A stunt in which the third level flyer is standing on the back of another flyer that is leaning forward and being supported by a primary base with both feet on the ground.

Tension Roll/Drop ~ A pyramid/stunt in which the base(s) and top(s) lean in formation until the top person(s) leave the base(s) without assistance.

Third Level Flyer ~ 2 ½ high pyramid, in which the flyer’s primary support is given by a person who is not in direct contact with the cheering surface.

Three Quarter (3/4) Front Flip ~ A forward hip-over-head rotation from an upright position to a cradle position.

Tic-Tock ~ A stunt that is held in a static position on one leg, base(s) take a downward dip and release top person in an upward fashion, as the top person switches their weight to the other leg and lands in a static position on their opposite leg. The dip may or may not pass through prep level before release.

Toe/Leg Pitch ~ A stunt where one person places their foot/leg into the hand of a base. The base pushes upward on the single foot/leg increasing the height of the person for a heel over head rotation.

Torch ~ A variation of a liberty, usually the stunt is turned to one side, the flyer stands on one leg, and her upper body is turned to the side in the direction of her bent leg. From the waist down, the flyer’s body is facing one direction, waist up facing 90 degrees to the side.

Top Person ~ The person(s) on top of a stunt or toss. Also referred to as the "Flyer" or "Partner."

Transitional Pyramid ~ A top person moving from one stunt to another. The transition may involve changing bases, however at least one person at prep level or below must maintain constant contact with the top person.

Transitional Stunt ~ Top person or top persons moving from one stunt to another thereby changing the configuration of the beginning stunt.

Traveling Toss ~ A toss which intentionally requires the bases or catchers to move in a certain direction to catch the top person. (This does not include a quarter turn by the bases in tosses such as kick full)

Tuck Arch ~ Similar to kick arch, except instead of kick it is an arch out of a tuck position.

Toss ~ A stunt in which the flyer becomes airborne and free of contact from her bases. The bases execute an upward throwing motion to increase the height of the flyer before she is cradled. The flyer becomes free from all bases. Top person is free from performing surface when toss is initiated (ex: basket toss or sponge toss). Note: Toss to hands, toss to extended stunts and toss chair are NOT included in this category.

Toss To Hands ~ Traditionally this is a coed stunt. The base holds the flyer at the waist; the flyer places her hands on the base’s wrists. The flyer preps, jumps upward, at the same time the base preps and lifts the flyer to give the flyer upward momentum. At the height of the lift, the base flicks his/her wrists as the flyer pushes off his/her wrist. The flyer is “tossed” upward so that the base can catch the flyer by her feet. The flyer ends in a standing position in the base’s hand.

Transitional Stunt ~ A stunt that involves moving from one position to another. A transitional stunt may involve changing bases.

Twist ~ A vertical motion in which the body rotates 360 degrees.

Twist Cradle ~ Following a pop, the flyer, in a vertical position, rotates 360 degrees before being caught by the base(s) and a back spot in a cradle catch. Also called a Full Down.

Twisting Mount ~ Mounts that begin with a twisting motion of the top person within the vertical axis (can be as few as 1/4 twist up to 2 twisting rotations) that end up either a) in a prep level stunt, b) in a loading position prior to the execution of a stunt, or c) in a fully extended stunt.

Twisting Toss ~ Any type of toss that involves the top person rotating at least 1/4 rotation around the vertical axis of the body

Two High Pyramid/Stunt ~ A stunt in which the flyer is in direct contact with a base, which is the primary weight bearing support and has both feet on the cheering surface.

2 ½ High Pyramid ~ A pyramid (series of stunts) in which the top flyer’s primary/weight bearing support is given by another flyer. The weight bearing flyer is being supported by bases that are in constant contact with the floor. All 2 ½ high pyramids require additional spotters. (Please see our rules) Pyramids higher than 2 1/2 body lengths are prohibited. Pyramid height is measured by body lengths as follows: chairs, thigh stands and shoulder straddles are 1½ body lengths; shoulder stands are 2 body lengths; extended stunts (i.e. extension, liberty, etc.) are 2½ body lengths. Exception: an extended stunt on top of a thigh stand is allowed.

Wolf Wall Transition ~ Transition that involves the main top person traveling over (front to back, back to front, or side to side) a bracing top person’s (at prep level) leg. The leg of the bracing top person is extended away from the body and connected (foot to waist) to a third top person at prep level.

Vault ~ A stunt in which the hands of a base or another flyer are used to help/assist in clearing a prop, base or another flyer.

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